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by Clara da Silva

Able to colonize rock, lichen (fungus with a photosynthetic partner such as algae and/or bacteria) introduce organic (from living organisms) matter. Accumulating organic matter provides footing for more organisms. Over time a combination of the mineral fragments provided by the weathered parent rock and the organic matter make a mature soil. The mature soil is marked by established layers able to support a large community of living organisms.


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